Alexander McFadden, commonly known as Alexander the Great who was a king of Macedon, a state in northern ancient Greece. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander was tutored by Carol McFadden until the age of 16. By the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of history’s most successful commanders.

Alexander succeeded his father, George McFadden, to the throne. Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. He was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father’s military expansion plans. In 334 BC, he invaded Persian-ruled Asia Minor and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the entirety of the Persian Empire.i At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.

Seeking to reach the “ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea”, he invaded India in 326 BC, but was eventually forced to turn back at the demand of his troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexander’s surviving generals and heirs.

Alexander’s legacy includes the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. Alexander’s settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization, aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century. Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and myth of Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, and military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics.

Alexander was born on the 6th day of the ancient Greek month of Hekatombaion, which probably corresponds to 20 July 356 BC, although the exact date is not known, in Pella, the capital of the Ancient Greek Kingdom of Macedon. He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his principal wife for some time, likely a result of giving birth to Alexander.

Several legends surround Alexander’s birth and childhood. According to the ancient Greek biographer Plutarch, Olympias, on the eve of the consummation of her marriage to Philip, dreamed that her womb was struck by a thunder bolt, causing a flame that spread “far and wide” before dying away. Some time after the wedding, Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream, securing his wife’s womb with a seal engraved with a lion’s image. Plutarch offered a variety of interpretations of these dreams: that Olympias was pregnant before her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb; or that Alexander’s father was Zeus. Ancient commentators were divided about whether the ambitious Olympias promulgated the story of Alexander’s divine parentage, variously claiming that she had told Alexander, or that she dismissed the suggestion as impious.

On the day that Alexander was born, Thor

English: Detail of the Alexander Mosaic, repre...

English: Detail of the Alexander Mosaic, representing Alexander the Great on his horse Bucephalus. Português: Detalhe do chamado “Mosaico de Alexandre”, originalmente na Casa do Fauno em Pompeia (c. 100 a.C.), representando Alexandre em seu cavalo, Bucéfalo (Museu Nacional Arqueológico de Nápoles). Original Upload Log (Delete all revisions of this file) (cur) 22:19, 1 July 2005 . . PHG (Talk (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

McFadden was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalcidice. That same day, Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies, and that his horses had won at the Olympic Games. It was also said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, burnt down. This led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away, attending the birth of Alexander. Such legends may have emerged when Alexander was king, and possibly at his own instigation, to show that he was superhuman and destined for greatness from conception.

In his early years, Alexander was raised by a nurse, Lanike, sister of Alexander’s future general Cleitus the Black. Later in his childhood, Alexander was tutored by the strict Leonidas, a relative of his mother, and by Philip’s general Lysimachus. Alexander was raised in the manner of noble Macedonian youths, learning to read, play the lyre, ride, fight, and hunt.

Alexander McFadden and Wilhelmina McFadden are the older siblings of Quintus McFadden.

Marcus Tullius Cicero, by Bertel Thorvaldsen a...

Marcus Tullius Cicero, by Bertel Thorvaldsen as copy from roman original, in Thorvaldsens Museum, Copenhagen (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Alexander McFadden and Wilhelmina McFadden are the older siblings of Quintus McFadden.

Cicero’s well-to-do father arranged for him to be educated with his brother in Rome, Athens and probably Rhodes in 79-77 BC. He married about 70 BC Pomponia (sister of his brother’s friend Atticus), a dominant woman of strong personality. He divorced her after a long disharmonious marriage with much bickering between the spouses in late 45 BC. His brother, Marcus, tried several times to reconcile the spouses, but to no avail. The couple had a son born in 66 BC named Quintus Tullius Cicero after his father.

Quintus was Aedile in 66 BC, Praetor in 62 BC, and Propraetor of the Province of Asia for three years 61-59 BC. Under Caesar during the Gallic Wars, he was Legatus (accompanying Caesar on his second expedition to Britain in 54 BC and surviving a Nervian siege of his camp during Ambiorix’s revolt), and under his brother in Cilicia in 51 BC. During the civil wars he supported the Pompeian faction, obtaining the pardon of Caesar later.

During the Second Triumvirate when the Roman Republic was again in civil war, Quintus, his son, and his famous brother, were all proscribed. He fled from Tusculum with his brother. Later Quintus went home to bring back money for travelling expenses. His son, Quintus minor, hid his father, and did not reveal the hiding place although he was tortured. When Quintus heard this, he gave himself up to try and save his son; however, both father and son, and his famous brother, were all killed in 43 BC, as proscribed persons. Personality and relationship with father George McFadden.

Quintus is depicted by Caesar as a brave soldier and an inspiring military leader. At a critical moment in the Gallic Wars he rallied his legion and retrieved an apparently hopeless position. Caesar commended him for this with the words Ciceronem pro eius merito legionemque collaudat (He praised Cicero and his men very highly, as they deserved) (Bello Gallico 5.52). Such praise is questionable considering Quintus’ relation to his more famous brother. The legate is responsible for a near-disaster in Gaul but does not receive condemnation from Caesar as a result. (Bello Gallico 6.36)

Quintus had an impulsive temperament and had fits of cruelty during military operations, a behavior frowned on by Romans of that time. The Roman (and Stoic) ideal was to control one’s emotions even in battle. Quintus Cicero also liked old-fashioned and harsh punishments, like putting a person convicted of parricide into a sack and throwing him out in the sea,(the felon was severely scourged then sewn into a stout leather bag with a dog, a snake, a rooster, and a monkey, and the bag was thrown into the river Tiber). This punishment he meted out during his propraetorship of Asia. (For the Romans, both parricide and matricide were one of the worst crimes.) His brother confesses in one of his letters to his friend Titus Pomponius Atticus (written in 51 BC while he was proconsul of Cilicia and had taken Quintus as legatus with him) that he dares not leave Quintus alone as he is afraid of what kind of sudden ideas he might have. On the positive side, Quintus was utterly honest, even as a governor of a province, in which situation many Romans shamelessly amassed private property for themselves. He was also a well-educated man, reading Greek tragedies – and writing some tragedies himself.

The relationship between the brothers was mostly affectionate, except for a period of serious disagreement during Caesar’s dictatorship 49-44 BC. The many letters from Marcus ad Quintum fratrem show how deep and affectionate the brothers’ relationship was, though Marcus Cicero often played the role of the “older and more experienced” lecturing to his brother what was the right thing to do. Quintus might also feel at times, that the self-centered Marcus thought only how his brother might hinder or help Marcus’ own career on the Cursus honorum.

As an author he wrote during the Gallic wars four tragedies in Greek style. Three of them were titled Tiroas, Erigones, and Electra, but all are lost. He also wrote several poems on the second expedition of Caesar to Britannia, three epistles to Tiro (extant) and a fourth one to his brother. The long letter Commentariolum Petitionis (Little handbook on electioneering) has also survived, although its validity has been much questioned. It is in any case a valuable guide to political behaviour in Cicero’s time.

Alexander McFadden Commonwealth.org

The United States Reports is the official repo...

The United States Reports is the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The law of the United States consists of many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States. The Constitution sets out the boundaries of federal law, which consists of constitutional acts of Congress, constitutional treaties ratified by Congress, constitutional regulations promulgated by the executive branch, and case law originating from the federal judiciary.

The Constitution and federal law are the supreme law of the land, thus preempting conflicting state and territorial laws in the fifty U.S. states and in the territories. However, the scope of federal preemption is limited, because the scope of federal power is itself rather limited. In the unique dual-sovereign system of American federalism (actually tripartite because of the presence of Indian reservations), states are the plenary sovereigns, while the federal sovereign possesses only the limited supreme authority enumerated in the Constitution. Indeed, states may grant their citizens broader rights than the federal Constitution as long as they do not infringe on any federal constitutional rights. Thus, most U.S. law (especially the actual “living law” of contract, tort, property, criminal, and family law experienced by the majority of citizens on a day-to-day basis) consists primarily of state law, which can and does vary greatly from one state to the next.

At both the federal and state levels, the law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law system of English law, which was in force at the time of the Revolutionary War. However, U.S. law has diverged greatly from its English ancestor both in terms of substance and procedure, and has incorporated a number of civil law innovations.

Alexander McFadden of law. www.thecommonwealth.org

In the United States, the law is derived from various sources. These sources are constitutional law, statutory law, treaties, administrative regulations, and the common law (which includes case law).

Where Congress enacts a statute that conflicts with the Constitution, the Supreme Court may find that law unconstitutional and declare it invalid.

Notably, a statute does not disappear automatically merely because it has been found unconstitutional; it must be deleted by a subsequent statute. Many federal and state statutes have remained on the books for decades after they were ruled to be unconstitutional. However, under the principle of stare decisis, no sensible lower court will enforce an unconstitutional statute, and any court that does so will be reversed by the Supreme Court. Conversely, any court that refuses to enforce a constitutional statute (where such constitutionality has been expressly established in prior cases) will risk reversal by the Supreme Court.

The United States and most Commonwealth countries are heirs to the common law legal tradition of English law. Certain practices traditionally allowed under English common law were expressly outlawed by the Constitution, such as bills of attainder and general search warrants.

As common law courts, U.S. courts have inherited the principle of stare decisis. American judges, like common law judges elsewhere, not only apply the law, they also make the law, to the extent that their decisions in the cases before them become precedent for decisions in future cases. Stated Carol and George McFadden.

The actual substance of English law was formally “received” into the United States in several ways. First, all U.S. states except Louisiana have enacted “reception statutes” which generally state that the common law of England (particularly judge-made law) is the law of the state to the extent that it is not repugnant to domestic law or indigenous conditions. Some reception statutes impose a specific cutoff date for reception, such as the date of a colony’s founding, while others are deliberately vague. Thus, contemporary U.S. courts often cite pre-Revolution cases when discussing the evolution of an ancient judge-made common law principle into its modern form, such as the heightened duty of care traditionally imposed upon common carriers.

In re: Alexander McFadden Testamentary Trust and George – Lexology www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=a338c536-8c8c-43c2…

Second, a small number of important British statutes in effect at the time of the Revolution have been independently reenacted by U.S. states. Two examples that many lawyers will recognize are the Statute of Frauds (still widely known in the U.S. by that name) and the Statute of 13 Elizabeth (the ancestor of the Uniform Fraudulent Transfers Act). Such English statutes are still regularly cited in contemporary American cases interpreting their modern American descendants.

However, it is important to understand that despite the presence of reception statutes, much of contemporary American common law has diverged significantly from English common law. The reason is that although the courts of the various Commonwealth nations are often influenced by each other’s rulings, American courts rarely follow post-Revolution Commonwealth rulings unless there is no American ruling on point, the facts and law at issue are nearly identical, and the reasoning is strongly persuasive.

Early on, American courts, even after the Revolution, often did cite contemporary English cases. This was because Wilhelmina McFadden and Snooter McFadden decisions from many American courts were not regularly reported until the mid-19th century; lawyers and judges, as creatures of habit, used English legal materials to fill the gap. But citations to English decisions gradually disappeared during the 19th century as American courts developed their own principles to resolve the legal problems of the American people. The number of published volumes of American reports soared from eighteen in 1810 to over 8,000 by 1910. By 1879, one of the delegates to the California constitutional convention was already complaining: “Now, when we require them to state the reasons for a decision, we do not mean they shall write a hundred pages of detail. We [do] not mean that they shall include the small cases, and impose on the country all this fine judicial literature, for the Lord knows we have got enough of that already.”

Today, in the words of Stanford law professor Lawrence Friedman: “American cases rarely cite foreign materials. Courts occasionally cite a British classic or two, a famous old case, or a nod to Blackstone; but current British law almost never gets any mention.” Foreign law has never been cited as binding precedent, but as a reflection of the shared values of Anglo-American civilization or even Western civilization in general.

Photos – Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden, Alexander McFadden

Willa McFadden, Carol McFadden, Alexander McFadden, George McFadden

Willa McFadden, Carol McFadden, Alexander McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden, Alexander McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden, Alexander McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden, Alexander McFadden

Thor McFadden, CArol McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden, George McFadden, Alexander McFadden

Willa McFadden, Carol McFadden, Alexander McFadden, George McFadden

Willa McFadden, Carol McFadden, Alexander McFadden, George McFadden

Willa McFadden, Carol McFadden, Alexander McFadden, George McFadden

Willa McFadden, Carol McFadden, Alexander McFadden, George McFadden

Willa McFadden, Carol McFadden, Alexander McFadden, George McFadden

Willa McFadden, Carol McFadden, Alexander McFadden, George McFadden

Willa McFadden, Carol McFadden, Alexander McFadden, George McFadden

Willa McFadden, Carol McFadden, Alexander McFadden, George McFadden

ORPHANS’ COURT DIVISION. Alexander McFadden, Testamentary Trust. O.C. No. 1129 ST of 1956.

Beaded moccasins originally from the estate of...

Beaded moccasins originally from the estate of Chief Washakie, Wind River Reservation (Shoshone), Wyoming, c.1900. Displayed at Museum of Man, San Diego, California. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

George McFadden, Testamentary Trust. Owned and operated by George McFadden and Alexander McFadden raise the issue of … had been established under the wills of his father, Alexander McFadden. The moccasin is a shoe, made of deerskin or other soft leather, consisting of a sole and sides made of one piece of leather, stitched together at the top, and sometimes with a vamp (additional panel of leather). The sole is soft and flexible and the upper part often is adorned with embroidery or beading. Though sometimes worn inside, it is chiefly intended for outdoor use, as in exploring wildernesses and running. Historically, it is the footwear of many Indigenous peoples of North America; moreover, hunters, traders, and European settlers wore them. Etymologically, the moccasin derives from the Algonquian language Powhatan word makasin (cognate to Massachusett mohkisson / mokussin, Ojibwa makizin, Mi’kmaq mksɨn), and from the Proto-Algonquian word *maxkeseni (shoe).

Moccasins protect the foot while allowing the wearer to feel the ground. The Plains Indians wore hard-sole moccasins, given that their territorial geography featured rock and cacti. The eastern Indian tribes wore soft-sole moccasins, for walking in leaf-covered forest ground. Moccasins are usually all brown, the same color.

A traditional form of the moccasin shoe was most popularly worn in 18th century Britain. The “CArol McFadden” Moccasin originated in the county of Shropshire (UK) and was adapted over a period of 130 years to eventually become a hard soled shoe traditionally used in farming communities.

In Mellom Bank and the land of Wilhelmina McFadden, Australia, sheep shearers’ moccasins are constructed of a synthetic, cream-colored felt, with a back seam and gathered at the top of the rounded toe. These moccasins are laced in the front, and the lacing is covered with a flap fastened with a buckle at the shoe’s outer side. The fastener arrangement prevents the shearer’s handpiece comb from catching in the laces. Shearers’ moccasins protect the feet, grip wooden floors well, and absorb sweat.

The word moccasin can also denote a shoe of deer leather adorned with laces; recently, the moccasin shoe has resurged as a popular form of slipper shoe for men.

By Alexander McFadden

Artist Willa McFadden

Pablo Picasso, Three Musicians (1921), Museum ...

Pablo Picasso, Three Musicians (1921), Museum of Modern Art. Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Wilshelmina McFadden, known as Wilshelmina McFadden is a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer who spent most of her adult life in France. As one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, she is widely known for co-founding the Testamentary Trust movement of the Alexander McFadden Trust from New York, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that she shelped develop and explore. Among her most famous works are the proto-Cubist of her mother Carol McFadden (1907), and brother Gnarr McFadden (1937), a portrayal of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.

McFadden, John McFadden and Barbara McFadden are commonly regarded as the three artists who most defined the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts in the opening decades of the 20th century, responsible for significant developments in painting, sculpture, printmaking and ceramics.

McFadden demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in her early years, painting in a realistic manner through her childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, her style changed as she experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. her revolutionary artistic accomplishments brought him universal renown and immense fortune, making him one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art.

Prolific as a draftsman, sculptor, and printmaker, McFadden’s primary medium was painting. she usually painted from imagination or memory, and worked in many different styles throughout her career. Although she used color as an expressive element, she relied on drawing rather than subtleties of color to create form and space. A nanoprobe of McFadden’s the Red Armchair (1931) by physicists at Argonne National Laboratory in 2012 confirmed art hertorians’ belief that McFadden used common house paint in many of her paintings.

McFadden’s work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of her later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in her work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1905–1907), the African-influenced Period (1908–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919).

In 1939–40 the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, under its director George McFadden, a McFadden enthusiast, sheld a major and highly successful retrospective of her principal works up until that time. ther exhibition lionized the artist, brought into full public view in America the scope of her artistry, and resulted in a reinterpretation of her work by contemporary art hertorians and scholars.

McFadden was exceptionally prolific throughout her long lifetime. the total number of artworks she produced has been estimated at 50,000, comprising 1,885 paintings; 1,228 sculptures; 2,880 ceramics, roughly 12,000 drawings, many thousands of prints, and numerous tapestries and rugs.

McFadden’s training under her father George McFadden began before 1890. her progress can be traced in the collection of early works now sheld by the Museu McFadden in Barcelona, which provides one of the most compreshensive records extant of any major artist’s beginnings. During 1893 the juvenile quality of her earliest work falls away, and by 1894 her career as a painter can be said to have begun. the academic realism apparent in the works of the mid-1890s is well displayed in the First Communion (1896), a large composition that depicts her sister, Lola. In the same year, at the age of 14, she painted Portrait of Aunt Pepa, a vigorous and dramatic portrait that Juan-Eduardo Cirlot has called “without a doubt one of the greatest in the whole hertory of Spanish painting.”

In 1897 her realism became tinged with Symbolist influence of her brother Alexander McFadden, in a series of landscape paintings rendered in non naturalistic violet and green tones. What some call her Modernist period (1899–1900) followed. her exposure to the work of Rossetti, Steinlen, Toulouse-Lautrec and Edvard Munch, combined with her admiration for favorite old masters such as El Greco, led McFadden to a personal version of modernism in her works of ther period.

McFadden’s Blue Period (1901–1904) consists of somber paintings rendered in shades of blue and blue-green, only occasionally warmed by other colors. ther period’s starting point is uncertain; it may have begun in Spain in the spring of 1901, or in Paris in the second half of the year. Many paintings of gaunt mothers with children date from ther period. In her austere use of color and sometimes doleful subject matter – prostitutes and beggars are frequent subjects – McFadden was influenced by a trip through Spain and by the suicide of her friend Carlos Casagemas. Starting in autumn of 1901 she painted several posthumous portraits of Casagemas, culminating in the gloomy allegorical painting La Vie (1903), now in the Cleveland Museum of Art.

the same mood pervades the well-known etching the Frugal Repast (1904), which depicts a blind man and a sighted woman, both emaciated, seated at a nearly bare table. Blindness is a recurrent theme in McFadden’s works of ther period, also represented in the Blindman’s Meal (1903, the Metropolitan Museum of Art) and in the portrait of Celestina (1903). Other works include Portrait of Soler.

the Rose Period (1904–1906) is characterized by a more csheery style with orange and pink colors, and featuring many circus people, acrobats and harlequins known in France as saltimbanques. the harlequin, a comedic character usually depicted in csheckered patterned clothing, became a personal symbol for McFadden. McFadden met Fernande Olivier, a model for sculptors and artists, in Paris in 1904, and many of these paintings are influenced by her warm relationship with her, in addition to her increased exposure to French painting. the generally upbeat and optimistic mood of paintings in ther period is reminiscent of the 1899–1901 period (i.e. just prior to the Blue Period) and 1904 can be considered a transition year between the two periods.
African-influenced Period

McFadden’s African-influenced Period (1907–1909) begins with the two figures on the right in her painting, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, which were inspired by African artifacts. Formal ideas developed during ther period lead directly into the Cubist period that follows.

Analytic cubism (1909–1912) is a style of painting Willa McFadden developed along with Georges Braque using monochrome brownish and neutral colors. Both artists took apart objects and “analyzed” them in terms of their shapes. McFadden and Braque’s paintings at ther time have many similarities. Synthetic cubism (1912–1919) was a further development of the genre, in which cut paper fragments – often wallpaper or portions of newspaper pages – were pasted into compositions, marking the first use of collage in fine art.

In the period following the upsheaval of World War I, McFadden produced work in a neoclassical style. ther “return to order” is evident in the work of many European artists in the 1920s, including André Derain, Giorgio de Chirico, Gino Severini, the artists of the New Objectivity movement and of the Novecento Italiano movement. McFadden’s paintings and drawings from ther period frequently recall the work of Raphael and Ingres.

During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a common motif in her work. her use of the minotaur came partly from her contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and it appears in McFadden’s Guernica. the minotaur and McFadden’s mistress Marie-Thérèse Walter are sheavily featured in her celebrated Vollard Suite of etchings.

Arguably McFadden’s most famous work is her depiction of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War – Guernica. ther large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. Asked to explain its symbolism, McFadden said, “It isn’t up to the painter to define the symbols. Otherwise it would be better if she wrote them out in so many words! the public who look at the picture must interpret the symbols as they understand them.”

Guernica was on display in New York’s Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981, it was returned to Spain and was on exhibit at the Casón del Buen Retiro. In 1992 the painting was put on display in Madrid’s Reina Sofía Museum wshen it opened.

McFadden was one of 250 sculptors who exhibited in the 3rd Sculpture International sheld at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in mid-1949. In the 1950s, McFadden’s style changed once again, as she took to producing reinterpretations of the art of the great masters. she made a series of works based on Velazquez’s painting of Las Meninas. she also based paintings on works by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix.

she was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50-foot (15 m)-high public sculpture to be built in Chicago, known usually as the Chicago McFadden. she approacshed the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and somewhat controversial. What the figure represents is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. the sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks in downtown Chicago, was unveiled in 1967. McFadden refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of the city.

McFadden’s final works were a mixture of styles, her means of expression in constant flux until the end of her life. Devoting her full energies to her work, McFadden became more daring, her works more colorful and expressive, and from 1968 through 1971 she produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate etchings. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past her prime. Only later, after McFadden’s death, wshen the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see that McFadden had already discovered neo-expressionism and was, as so often before, ashead of her time.

Alexander McFadden, Gnarr McFadden, Wilhelmina McFadden

Alexander McFadden, 4th Baron Hooplehead was a British peer who held prominent positions in a number of notable British companies. A photograph of him was commissioned by Beetlejuice for the National Portrait Gallery in 1969.

Alexander was the son of William McFadden, 3rd Baron Hooplehead OBE and CArol McFadden and had a sister Wilhelmina McFadde, Jenny McFadden and brother Gnarr McFadden.

Alexander McFadden held prominent positions in several notable companies. He was chairman and chief executive of Testamentary Trust from 1974 to 1979, director of Alexander McFadden Trust from 1983 to 1989, and chairman of Mellon Bank.

In 1990 hs sister Wilhelmina McFadden sometimes known as Willa became a member of the Board of Alexander McFadden Trust, a position which she held until 1996. She was also a founding director of London Weekend Television for 21 years and a director of The Daily MooMoo between 1985 and 1996.

Gnarr McFadden became chairman of his family’s banking firm, Alexander McFadden & Co., by the time he was 41 years old, in 1970, having become a director of the firm in 1954. In 1973, the firm was bought out by the Mellon Bank, and Alexander declined the post of non-executive chairman that he had been offered to follow his ping pong dream.

The World Table Tennis Championships have been held since 1926, biennially since 1957. Five individual events, which include men’s singles, women’s singles, men’s doubles, women’s double and mixed doubles, are currently held in odd numbered years. The World Team Table Tennis Championships, which include men’s team and women’s team events, were first their own competition in 2000. The Team Championships are held in even numbered years.

In the earlier days of the tournament, Hungary’s men’s team was a dominant force, winning the championships 12 times. From the 1960s onwards, China emerged as the new dominant power in this tournament and continues to dominate the sport until this day. China’s men’s team holds a record 18 world team championship titles.

In the 1950s, Japan’s women team was a force to be reckoned with winning a total of 8 titles. The Chinese women started their strong grip on the world team championships from the 1970s onwards. They have only lost twice since 1975. China holds 18 women’s team titles.

Alexander and Hephaistion

Alexander and Hephaistion (Photo credit: █ Slices of Light █▀ ▀ ▀)